The History of Esfahan Steel Plant Corporation:
Esfahan of Iran, during the past centuries and ages has got the same level as the great societies and civilizations from the viewpoint of obtaining iron and steel. However, during the recent three centuries, due to the accelerated developments in technology field of steel production in industrial countries and increasing need to the steel products, Iran is placed among the importers of metallic products. Establishing an iron steel plant, which is considered as the mother of the industries has been discussed since Ghajarian period as a national ideal, and it’s always been encountered with variety of difficulties such as domestic and foreign political problems and financial limitations. So, establishing Iron Steel Plant was agreed through the structure of technical and economical corporation protocol between Iran and The Former Soviet Union governments, and an agreement was signed that the parliament approved in January 13th of 1965. One of the principles of the agreement was Soviet’s assist to establish Iron Steel Plant in Iran. On this basis, Iran Iron Steel Plant National Corporation concluded a contract with Soviet’s Firm of Export Tiajhprom to supply the requirement plan and equipments for the plant, and to prepare iron ore, coal and limestone mines. Soviet’s specialists considering the limitations of the financial resources and raw materials, particularly, coal known stores, specified the plant capacity in the first phase, 550 thousand tons steel per year that it was agreed. Subsequently, Iranian and Russian specialists evaluated Esfahan suburb from the criteria of earth’s layers stability, location qualification for the earthquake, water supply, electrical energy, raw materials, and communicational lines, technical, economical and social parameters. As a result of their studies, Tabas plain located 45 kilometers of Esfahan Southwest was ensured and assessed suitable. The excessive operations of constructing the structure of different units of the plant was started from 1967, and exploiting the plant with cast iron production was begun, by making coking, agglomeration and blast furnace, number 1 during the first half of January 1971. Establishing steel making section and roll engineering in January 1972 also began the production of steel products with the capacity of 550 thousand tons per year. Consequently, in 1972, the executive and constructional operations of the development project to achieve the capacity of 1/900/000 tons steel per year was started by establishing blast furnace, number 2, and developing different parts of agglomeration, coking, steel making, rolling etc, and the constructional operations of cast iron complex was ended in 1978. But, due to the existing problems in designing the Russian stable casting machines, steel making was as the production strait and limitation, and in relation with it, the establishment of two modern casting machines from Italy was begun, and in 1980 the complete exploiting of steel complex was carried on up to the nominal capacity. Although during the imposed war, in Iron Steel Plant as well as other industries, proceeding of achieving the goals of the development project was not as expected, but after the war ended, using its facilities, the plant could get the production up to 2/000/000 tons i.e. more than the capacity of settled equipments. Then, after the performed studies, the plant plan a comprehensive and extensive reconstruction fulfillment, and depending on available abilities in professional forces, it was attempted, in addition to the reconstruction capacity with the least time waste, the production capacity of the units was started to be increased, the production variation was added and their quality was improved. After the performed research and studies and by the aim of balancing the production capacity of the plant different units, the performance of the plant balance project is being doing.
The general View:
Today, one of the most essential of economical and social levels of the world’s countries consists of iron and steel industries. This is due to the urgent need that human being has in his life to achieve his purposes. With a short look at the usage of this crucial element, useful role of it can be found, since in addition to its application in construction, bridge making and so on, it’s one of the essential products in car, ship and locomotive manufacturing industries, and as different alloys forms the basis of machinery technology.
Discovering a beam from 3000 years B.C in one of Sumerians’ graves placed in ……… at the south of Mesopotamia demonstrates that the appliance of iron by human has been started since about 3000 years B.C and generally has been prevalent in Egypt, Assyria, China and India. In the beginning, human used natural iron which was achieved as iron ore with varying degrees of purity. Yet, there is another idea that people of that age used meteorites as the purer iron. Applying pure iron was possible about 1300 B.C that more likely it was occurred accidently through the violent heating of the mineral rocks by charcoal. Iron was extracted by heating ochre and charcoal too. The progress and growth process of iron extraction from iron natural compounds was developing over time, so that the first iron extracting furnace of the modern style that was known as Kanalany was innovated. The furnace had a fireplace with the dimensions of 60 × 60 × 75 cm. This process development was continued so that today, enormous plants of extracting and melting iron and steel with the capacity of several million tons are made.